Basically attention to detail and excellent nursing care, a “delirium bundle” directed at the risk factors (See Table 2 and Table 3) has been shown to decrease the incidence, duration, length of hospitalization and mortality. While admittedly it is not known if this translates to better longer-term outcomes it makes good clinical sense.
- Establish baseline cognitive function from family/friends.
- Improved psychotropic medication use.
- Organization of nursing care to promote continuity of care and personal knowledge.
- Provide visual and hearing aids.
- Reorientate patient verbally and visually - clock/calendar.
- Attention to causes of sleep deprivation.
- Mobilize early.
- Ensure adequate pain control.
- Avoid physical restraints.
- Avoid constipation.